Behavior

A Focus on Implementation of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in High Schools: Associations With Bullying and Other Indicators of School Disorder
This study examines the implementation of an MTSS framework in high schools. The MTSS model tested in this study included training in the multitiered PBIS model and access to data on school climate, which were used to guide the selection and implementation of one or more evidence-based practices, with ongoing support from a coach.
Authors: Catherine P. Bradshaw, Elise T. Pas, Katrina J. Debnam, and Sarah Lindstrom Johnson
Publication Date: September 2015
Publisher: School Psychology Review

Addressing the Root Causes of Disparities in School Discipline: An Educator’s Action Planning Guide
This guide is intended to assist school communities in engaging in efforts to create supportive school climates and to address any persistent challenges, including disparities, in the administration of school discipline.
Authors: D. Osher, D. Fisher, L. Amos, J. Katz, K. Dwyer, T. Duffey, and G.D. Colombi
Publication Date: 2015
Publisher: National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments

Are Fewer Students with Disabilities Suspended When Schools Implement PBIS?
This evaluation brief explores the relationship between schools’ implementation of Tier 1 (universal) support within a positive behavioral interventions and supports framework and the proportion of students with disabilities suspended.
Authors: Brandi Simonsen, Jennifer freeman, Anthony Gambino, Sandra Sears, Katharine Meyer, and Robert Hoselton
Publication Date: November 2021
Publisher: Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, University of Oregon

Arizona Compilation of School Discipline Laws and Regulations
This compilation presents school discipline-related laws and regulations for U.S. states, U.S. territories, and the District of Columbia, and, where available, links to education agency websites or resources related to school discipline and student conduct.
Publication Date: March 2021
Publisher: Safe Supportive Learning

Brief: An Empirical Examination of the Effects of Suspension and Suspension Severity on Behavioral and Academic Outcomes
This study builds on the literature by estimating the effect of discipline type and duration, in response to a specific type of behavioral incident, on students’ later school behavior, the disciplinary responses they receive to future infractions, their attendance, and their academic outcomes. It also estimates spillover effect on their peers’ outcomes and school climate.
Authors: Christina LiCalsi, David Osher, and Paul Bailey
Publication Date: August 2021
Publisher: American Institutes for Research 

Building a Positive School Climate Through Restorative Practices
This brief reviews research illustrating the benefits of these practices for improving student behavior, decreasing the use of exclusionary discipline, and improving school climate.
Author: Sarah Klevan
Publication Date: October 2021
Publisher: Learning Policy Institute

Bully Prevention Manual (Elementary Level)
This handbook focuses on reducing bullying behavior through the blending of school-wide positive behavior support, explicit instruction, and a redefinition of the bullying construct.
Authors: Bruce Stiller, Scott Ross, and Robert H. Horner
Publication Date: August 2012
Publisher: TA Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Bullying Prevention in Positive Behavior Support: Expect Respect
The purpose of this handbook is to improve the success of schools as effective learning environments by establishing expectations for common respect. It includes procedures that have been demonstrated to be practical and effective.
Authors: Brianna C. Stiller, Rhonda N.T. Nese, Anne K. Tomlanovich, Robert H. Horner, and Scott W. Ross
Publication Date: February 2013
Publisher: University of Oregon 

Classroom Behavior Management (Part 1): Key Concepts and Foundational Practices
This module overviews the effects of disruptive behaviors as well as important key concepts and foundational practices related to effective classroom behavior management, including cultural influences on behavior and the creation of positive climates and structured classrooms.
Publication Date: 2022
Publisher: IRIS Center, Vanderbilt University 

Classroom Behavior Management (Part 2, Elementary): Developing a Behavior Management Plan
This module is a companion to Classroom Behavior Management (Part 1): Key Concepts and Foundational Practices. Developed specifically with primary and intermediate elementary teachers in mind (e.g., K-5th grade), this module reviews the major components of a classroom behavior management plan (including rules, procedures, and consequences) and guides users through the steps of creating their own classroom behavior management plan.
Publication Date: 2022
Publisher: IRIS Center, Vanderbilt University 

Classroom Behavior Management (Part 2, Secondary): Developing a Behavior Management Plan
This module is a companion to Classroom Behavior Management (Part 1): Key Concepts and Foundational Practices. Developed specifically with middle and high school teachers in mind (e.g., 6th-12th grade), this module reviews the major components of a classroom behavior management plan (including rules, procedures, and consequences) and guides users through the steps of creating their own classroom behavior management plan.
Publication Date: 2022
Publisher: IRIS Center, Vanderbilt University 

Encouraging Appropriate Behavior
This case study unit addresses the following well-established practices teachers can use to encourage appropriate behavior: behavior-specific praise, criterion-specific rewards, choice making, rules, contingent instructions, and group contingency.
Author: Christina M. Curran
Publication Date: 2003, 2021
Publisher: IRIS Center, Vanderbilt University 

Guiding Principles: A Resource Guide for Improving School Climate and Discipline
This guide provides three key principles with an organized set of action steps to help educators and school officials begin a local effort to improve school climate and school discipline practice.
Publication Date: January 2014
Publisher: U.S. Department of Education 

Improving Attendance and Reducing Chronic Absenteeism
This brief explains how a Multi-Tiered Behavioral Framework provides a team-based decision-making system to take advantage of existing resources, merge and integrate practices aimed toward a common outcome, and enhance a continuum of practices that support all students as well as those with chronic attendance challenges.
Authors: Jennifer Freeman, George Sugai, Steve Goodman, Brigid Flannery, Sandra Sears
Publication Date: January 2020
Publisher: Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, University of Oregon 

Lessons Learned on Implementation of PBIS in High Schools
This monograph was designed to provide information and strategies for current trends and future directions that can be used as needed by administrators, coaches, and Leadership Teams to address their unique needs.
Editors: K. Brigid Flannery, Patricia Hershfeldt, and Jennifer Freeman
Publication Date: 2018
Publisher: Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, University of Oregon 

Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) in the Classroom
This brief provides guidance to educators implementing an MTSS framework, like positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS), in the classroom across the continuum of student need. Educators regularly provide a range of supports for students in the classroom—from universal supports for all students to intensive and individualized supports for a few students.
Authors: Brandi Simonsen, Karen Robbie, Katherine Meyer, Jen Freeman, Susannah Everett, and Adam Feinberg
Publication Date: November 2021
Publisher: Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, University of Oregon 

PBIS Technical Brief on Systems to Support Teachers’ Implementation of Positive Classroom Behavior Support
This brief summarizes proactive, efficient, and evidence-based systems for supporting teachers’ implementation of positive classroom behavior support (PCBS) practices. It is designed to inform and support school and district leadership teams as they address schoolwide implementation.
Authors: Jennifer Freeman, Brandi Simonsen, Steve Goodman, Barb Mitchell, Heather George, Jessica Swain-Bradway, Kathleen Lane, Jeff Sprague, and Bob Putnam
Publication Date: February 2017
Publisher: Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports 

Preventing Restraint and Seclusion in Schools
This brief offers alternatives to restraint and seclusion through prevention with how schools and classrooms are arranged an operate, developing interventions to support students with a history of challenging behavior, and responding after a crisis to ensure that all students and educators are more likely to be successful the next time.
Authors: Brandi Simonsen, George Sugai, Heather P. George, Jennifer Freeman, and Lauren Evanovich
Publication Date: May 2019
Publisher: OSEP TA Center on PBIS 

Restorative Practices: Fostering Healthy Relationships & Promoting Positive Discipline in Schools
This guide includes digestible models, frameworks, and action steps for school-wide implementation, accompanied by guiding questions to support reflection for practitioners looking to make restorative methods part of the fabric of daily life in schools.
Publication Date: March 2014
Publisher: Schott Foundation for Public Education 

Restraint and Seclusion: Resource Document
Stressing that every effort should be made to prevent the need for the use of restraint and seclusion, this resource document describes 15 principles for developing policies and procedures on the use of restraint and seclusion.
Publication Date: May 2012
Publisher: U.S. Department of Education 

School & Behavioral Health Partnerships: A Resource Guide
This guide provides clear, concise information and tools that will help connect educational leaders and behavioral health providers, define expectations and roles for each, provide guidance for handling a behavioral health crisis, and help your community respond to a suicide.
Publication Date: Updated April 2021
Publisher: Arizona Department of Education and Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System 

Significant Disproportionality in Special Education: Trends Among English Learners (ELs)
Years of research point to inequities in education for students of color, students from low-income backgrounds, and students with disabilities. These inequities are particularly apparent when it comes to rates of discipline and special education enrollment. This brief summarizes the trends in significant disproportionality for students who are English learners (ELs).
Publication Date: October 2020
Publisher: National Center for Learning Disabilities 

Translating Research to Practice in Bullying Prevention
This paper synthesizes findings from a series of studies and meta-analyses examining the efficacy of bullying prevention programs. The findings are intended to inform both policy and public health practice related to bullying prevention.
Author: Catherine P. Bradshaw
Publication Date: May–June 2015
Publisher: American Psychological Association 

Using Data to Promote Equity in School Discipline
This training series provides resources to help school and district teams use data to identify areas of concern related to the overuse of exclusionary discipline or disproportionality in assigning discipline to student groups, such as students of color or students with disabilities. The training series also helps teams use evidence to identify interventions, develop an action plan, track their effectiveness, and inform improvement decisions.
Publication Date: April 2019
Publisher: REL Northwest 

Using Discipline Data to Enhance Equity in School Discipline
This article describes a promising four-step approach for using school discipline data to identify specific interactions that are more susceptible to the effects of implicit bias on decision making and change the environment to meet the needs of all students. A case study is included with a plan that includes elements of explicit instruction and cultural responsiveness.
Authors: Kent McIntosh, Kathleen Ellwood, Lisa McCall, and Erik Girvan
Publication Date: 2018
Publisher: Intervention in School and Clinic 

Why Prioritize Behavior Support?
This brief describes why it is critical to continue to prioritize behavior support in addition to academic, social, and emotional supports. With effective behavior support implemented within a PBIS framework, rigorous research has demonstrated that students and educators experience positive outcomes.
Publication Date: March 2021
Publisher: Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, University of Oregon